Acne is a disease which frequently occurs in oily skin as a result of increased secretion of the sebaceous glands mostly on the face, chest and back. The forms of acne are different and include comedones, red buds, pustules and tight buds. These forms may occur alone, but more often represent consecutive stages of acne.
Comedones are two types: open – with a black top, which is due to the oxidation of horns ingredient and impurity powder and closed – white top. Red buds contain a whitish discharge. They can become infected by bacteria go pus shaped pustules with yellowish discharge. Pustules can pierce the skin surface and form crusts or increase its size and form compacted bud that is very painful. In the latter case the inflammation has covered the entire sebaceous gland and sometimes hairy-fat follicle. The merger of several tight buds formed form of the inflammatory process when engaging and subcutaneous.
Appendix is a blind ending, curved appendage attached to the first part of the cecum. On its inner surface is covered with cells expressing scarce mucus secretion, which is drained to the cecum. The wall of the appendix contains mostly muscle, and lymphoid tissue. The latter is part of the body’s immune system and is involved in the production of antibodies.
Acute appendicitis disease is an inflammation of the appendix. It occurs as a result of blocking for various reasons runoff of the appendix, most often in accumulation of thick mucus secretions, faecal entered from the cecum or expansion of existing lymphatic tissue. However, conditions are created bacteria that normally live and grow in the appendix to penetrate the wall and provoke the development of inflammation.
Allergy to milk protein can develop at any age, but most commonly occurs in young children. About 2-3% of children dormant, as a large percentage of cases this state grew up. The allergy to milk protein develops when the child’s immune system mistakenly perceived milk protein as something harmful to the body against which he must defend. Thus occurs allergic reaction which is manifested by symptoms of digestive, respiratory system and skin. The child becomes irritable and restless.
The milk is composed of two major proteins:
– Casein, which builds called. a rigid part of the milk (or what is obtained after the milk is crossed).
– Whey protein makes up the liquid part of milk (whey).
Amoebic dysentery is an acute or chronic relapsing parasitic disease leading to damage to the digestive tract, but also possible organ complications. The cause is protozoan parasites Entamoeba hystolitica. It exists in several forms – as called trophosoites with forma magna and forma minuta, and cyst.
Man is infected by fecal-oral mechanism by contaminated hands, water, foodstuffs, in which the digestive tract falls cyst. From the mature one is De-couple amoebas as forma minuta. They can remain in the intestinal lumen for a long time without causing a clinic, but are a source of new cysts in the environment. In moving to forma magna however occurs inflammation of the lining of the colon under the action of enzymes secreted by the parasite to growth and even possibly passing into the bloodstream amoebas, by which the latter may be localized in various tissues with the formation of pus local collections – abscesses.
Amoebic dysentery diagnosis is based on clinical and microbiological laboratory finding, but should not be underestimated and epidemiological history. To study is taken fecal sample and the material of the biopsy in rekto- or colonoscopy. Make a native microscope slide – to monitor the active form or cysts, and lasting preparation after specific staining. Inoculation was performed on a special medium. Serology – with exploration, too titre of antibodies is also available. Endoscopic establish typical violations of the intestinal mucosa. By using imaging such as ultrasound, X-ray, CT scans can diagnose other organ damage. A similar clinical picture can be seen with other parasitic diseases, and bacterial infections such as shigellosis, salmonellosis.
Blood is one of the main components in the human body. It performs vital functions, through which ensured the unity and maintaining homeostasis in the body.
Blood consists of a liquid component, called plasma, and a cellular mass. The largest percentage of cellular elements in the blood falls on the erythrocytes (red blood cells). They bind oxygen from the air and carry it to all the cells and tissues of the body, thus maintaining their normal life cycle.
Erythrocytes are small double discs that have no nucleus and are relatively plastic membrane. They originate from a progenitor (stem) cell in the bone marrow, which is then repeated becomes differentiated into mature erythrocytes. Typically, erythrocytes live about 120 days, after which they occur various morphological changes, and they are destroyed by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system. But thanks to a finely maintained regulatory system in a healthy organism, the number of erythrocytes always remains constant, which provides the oxygen needs of the cells.
Asthma is a disease that occurs with chronic inflammation and increased sensitivity (hyperresponsiveness) of the bronchial tree to various stimuli or triggers. Contact with stimulus or provocative moment arises reaction that education reduces the bronchi becomes a blockage (obstruction) and breathing is difficult. This obstruction is variable and usually completely reversible by means of medicaments. To understand the nature of asthma as a disease it is necessary to briefly examine the structure of the respiratory system and the way it functions.
In the process of respiration, the air passes first through the nose where it is warmed, filtered and humidified. Then, he goes through the throat (pharynx) in such a pipe organ called trachea. The trachea is divided into two main armor, which continue to diverge in a system of many more small tubes called bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles. All they form the so-called – “bronchial tree”.
Asthma is a chronic disease which can not be cured completely. However, there are many medications that used regularly, can fully compensate for respiratory function and to reduce the occurrence of seizures to a minimum. Highlights in the treatment of asthma is to overcome the bronchial obstruction and chronic inflammation. There are two basic approaches in the treatment of asthma – treatment in attack and treatment outside attack period.
Since asthma attack can be life-threatening condition for its treatment using fast-acting drugs with strong broncho broadly action – the so-called short-acting bronchodilators. To this group belong medicaments beta2-agonists (salbutamol, clenbuterol) as well as anticholinergic agents (Atrovent). Some medicines usually are not used daily, but only upon the occurrence of attack. They are available in the form of the MDI systems and are very comfortable to use when needed.
Meningitis diseases can be quite varied and are determined by the source of infection. Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacteria infecting the meninges of the brain or spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis in adults has an annual incidence of 4 to 6 cases per 100 000 population, with the most common being Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis representing more than 80% of all cases.
The common symptoms of the bacterial meningitis are driven by irritation of the meninges and peripheral nerves. Bacterial meningitis symptoms can be headache, vomiting and irritation from light. Such symptoms are typical for all the types of meningitis, as the bacterial one has also strong fever, neck stiffness and altered consciousness. Regarded as the most dangerous and harmful of meningitis diseases, fast diagnosis and treatment is crucial. It is usually considered that every minute of a bacterial meningitis infection is important and a fast diagnosis ensures a higher chance of a fully cured patient.
Chlamydia is the second most common sexually transmitted diseases after papillomavirus. It affects both men and women but is more serious consequence at the fair sex. Chlamydia causes severe irreversible damage to reproductive organs in women. The infection is the cause of clogging and blockage of the fallopian tubes, causing serious consequences such as infertility and creating conditions for the emergence of dangerous conditions such as the ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia trachomatis is transmitted through all forms of sex – vaginal, oral, anal. In most cases, the infection symptomless – seven out of 10 people do not complain of any signs weeks after infection. If you are experiencing any symptoms, they include unusual vaginal discharge, burning during urination. Possible rectal pain, anal spread of microorganisms, discharges and even bleeding from the rectum.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with the onset of ulcerative changes in the alimentary canal. Crohn’s disease can affect any portion thereof, starting from the mouth and reaches the anus, often particularly striking m. Called. Ileum (part of the small intestine located generally in the lower right area of the abdomen). Usually occurs between the ages of 15 and 40 years.
The inflammatory process in Crohn’s disease affects both the surface and deeper-lying layers of the wall most of the small intestine, thereby forming ulcerative changes. In a particularly strong inflammatory thrusts of the disease it is possible to disrupt the integrity of the intestinal wall and to form a channel (fistula) between adjacent intestinal loops between the small intestine and the other, adjacent organs (e.g., bladder) or skin.
The cause for occurrence of the disease has not yet been known. It is assumed that at its base is a viral or bacterial infection that leads to dysfunction of the immune system continued to exist after eliminating the infectious agent.
The most common Crohn’s disease symptoms are abdominal pain, localized mainly around the navel, pain during bowel movements, diarrhea, sometimes with blood in the stool, lack of appetite and weight loss.
Other symptoms of the Crohn’s disease are also changes in the skin around the anus (ulcers, fistulas, etc., possibly with natichane secretion), fever (high body temperature), general weakness, in children lagging behind in growth and sexual maturation.
If your doctor suspects that you have Crohn’s disease, he will examine in detail about your complaints and will do a full review, looking for symptoms of the disease. Could you make some of these tests, such as blood tests, possibly to show an increased number of white blood cells and other signs of inflammation and / or anemia (low red blood cells – red blood cells). These are possible signs of the disease.
Diagnosis of the Hemochromatosis disease is relatively easy especially if you think about it. Usually established elevated serum iron and greatly reduced JAC reflecting capacity of the blood to bind iron. Further, the diagnosis is made based on liver biopsy and histological examination. Treatment for hemochromatosis has two major phases. On the one hand it aims at removing excess iron from the body in order predotvartyavane further damage orgnite and other therapy already arisen organ disorders.
With very good effect is the weekly bloodletting. Thanks to it, is achieved relative iron deficiency and, moreover, the loss of iron is beneficial intervention on liver damage, diabetes and heart damage. In some cases it is appropriate and the application of so-called. iron chelators – these are preparations that bind iron and recovered from the body. Their application is especially useful in the so-called. secondary hemochromatosis.
Hemochromatosis is a disorder which is caused by increased iron accumulation in the organs, resulting in the occurrence of damage to them. Most often affect the liver, heart, pancreas, joints, pituitary gland. The disease is quite rare – 1/200 to 1/2000 of Caucasians. Usually, men suffer more often and more severely.
There are essentially two forms of the disease – primary and secondary.
Primary hemochromatosis is idiopathic, ie her usual cause of the disease is unknown. Most often it is a congenital disease that develops as a result of abnormally increased intestinal absorption of iron. Unlike normal subjects patients with this type of hemochromatosis absorb 3-4 times more iron than normal. Since the body is adapted for processing such a amount of iron, it is most often accumulate in certain organs, with the result that they become damaged.
Very often people with hiatal hernia, mainly on the type of axial have heartburn, heartburn and GERD. Gastroesophageal reflux is a condition wherein the acidic contents of the stomach pass back into the esophagus causing damage to the lining of his, accompanied by appropriate pain symptoms. Although appear to be linked, one condition does not necessarily lead to the other. Very often in people with hiatal hernia without having GERD and vice versa.
Pain in hernia localization and character somewhat resembles that of myocardial infarction (behind the breastbone, stinging character). In paraesophageal hernias are common symptoms of shortness of breath and palpitations, symptoms typical of many diseases of the heart and lungs. It is therefore very important to undergo testing and consultations with medical specialists to put a proper diagnosis.
Lyme disease is an inflectional illness with an endemic character, which is caused by certain microbe – Borrelia Burgdorferi. The disease is widespread in specific regions and the main sources of the infection are mice and other rodents, wild and domestic animals and some birds. The transmitters of the disease are mites of the genus Ixodes, as the infection occurs through the bite and rarely in the conjunctiva of the eyes when stroking the mite. The Lyme disease has seasonal character and usually occurs during the summer months in the period of increased activity of the ticks.
The incubation (latent) period of the Lyme disease is between 2 and 35 days, and average of 10 days.
The diagnosis “Lyme disease” is based on medical examination, information about possible tick bite and some laboratory tests. The first symptoms of Lyme Disease often are invisible and the illness may occur after long time of the tick bite. Also the symptoms might be non-standard, which definitely difficult to put the correct diagnosis in a significant proportion of cases.
During the medical examination, the doctor will ask you is details about the characteristics of your complaints and symptoms, which you may have. Important information is the tick bite, residence in an area where the disease is widespread, often staying close to nature in the summer and autumn and etc. After this conversation, your doctor will thoroughly review with special attention to the presence of a skin rash on the body, swelling, tenderness and limited motion in certain joints, stiffness and neck pain, change in reflexes and sensitivity of the limbs, etc.
The Lyme disease occurs in three stages. In each of them the disease hurts with different power the organs and systems of the body, which causes different symptoms of Lyme disease. The transition from one stage to another is generally consistent and smooth. However, sometimes might occur some symptoms, characteristic of several stages simultaneously. If you know the symptoms of Lyme disease, you will be better prepared and will be able to diagnose it earlier and start treatment from the first stages of the disease.
First Stage – might occur without any symptoms or remain unnoticed by the patient. In most of the cases a few days or month after infection with Lyme disease, the patient has slightly increased temperature, aching muscles and joints, headache, general weakness, swelling of some lymph nodes. The most characteristic symptom of this stage is the skin rash. On the place of mite’s biting, where the spirochaete has entered into the skin form a red spot. This red spot grows up in a circle every single day and brightens in the middle, to become a red oval ring, which might have various size. This characteristic cutaneous manifestation of the Lyme disease is called “migratory erythema”. This ring is usually not itchy and does not hurt. In some cases, may form several rings or just red spots, which are not caused by several tick bites. Without treatment the red oval ring passes by itself, but might reappear.
The treatment of Lyme disease is performed with antibiotics. However, the stage of the illness and the severity of the disability will determine the type of antibiotics to be applied. Except in cases with serious joint involvement of the heart and nervous system, the treatment can be conducted at home. The patient is not infectious to others and therefore does not require isolation.
In the first stage of Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics by mouth, usually 3 to 4 weeks. The doctors might prescribe you the proper antibiotics according to the age, condition and the damaged organs. The patients who developed facial paralysis, affecting the joints and heart are getting the antibiotic 1 or 2 weeks more, or also prescribed intravenous antibiotics for several weeks to a month.
Malaria is a protozoan disease with fever and relapsing fever, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly. Malaria is one of the most widespread tropical parasitic diseases in the world. Spread is endemic in Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central and South America. It is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium – Plasmodium vivax – causes malaria tertiana (three-day malaria); Plasmodium ovale – causes malaria ovale (three-day malaria); Plasmodium falciparum – causes tropical malaria; Plasmodium malariae – causes malaria malariae – a four-day malaria.