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Parkinson’s disease

parkinsons disease

Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. This is a slow progressive disease characterized by the presence of resting tremor, slowness of voluntary movements (bradykinesia) and hypertonia (rigidity). The disease is diagnosed for the first time in 1817, when the Englishman Dr. James Parkinson described the characteristic clinical symptoms. Disease-related biochemical changes in the brains of patients were identified in 1960. It covers about 80% of those with Parkinson’s syndrome, the average age at which first symptoms appeared about 55 years for both sexes, according to survey of Mother Earth News. It is assumed that the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease is approximately 160/100 000 and morbidity – 20/100 000 per year. Caucasians have a greater risk of developing this disease. The risk of developing the disease increases with age. The disease occurs in all parts of the world, but is more common among Europeans (whites) than among the population of Africa. East Asians have an average largest risk. It is more common among rural population and slightly more often in men than in women.

The cause of the disease is unspecified. Currently, it is considered that Parkinson’s disease is the result of degeneration of the substantia nigra. The process is likely to be caused by the influence of several factors:
Genetic factors – research in the field of genetics have established the existence of nine different specific genetic defect, which are associated with the development of the disease in families with a particularly high incidence of the disease. At about ΒΌ of all patients with Parkinson’s disease is established family history of the disease. Was established gene defect in fourth hramozoma in families with autosomal dominant type of inheritance of the disease. It was also found a mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene (4q chromosome) in the parkin gene (6q chromosome), and in ubiquitin hydrolase gene (chromosome 4q). In conclusion, there is clear evidence of the importance of genetic factors in Parkinson’s disease.
toxic factors – toxic agent MPTP (1-methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine) can cause destruction of cells in the substantia nigra. More than 100 other compounds have similar strutkura and activity and could cause those changes.
Oxidative stress – in the body there are natural antioxidants which protect the cell structures from the harmful effects of free radicals, damaging the cell membrane, other cellular proteins and functions of mitochondria in the cell. For example, glutathione is a natural antioxidant. Its reduction is the earliest biochemical marker for nigralnata degeneration even in the preclinical stage of the disease.
Mediator imbalance – that the dopamine deficiency with relatively prevalence of cholinergic activity. And recognizing the reduction in naradrenergichnata, serotonergic and gabaergichnata mediation.

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