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Treatment of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson's disease

At the start of treatment the symptoms respond better to different long period of time. This period is individual and depends on the shape of disease – tremor-rigid. Also of therapy. The treatment may be symptomatic or replacement by restoring the level of dopamine or dopamine receptor stimulation. Preventative treatment aims to prevent progression of the disease. In Bulgaria was adopted consensus for the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. According to him delaying the start of treatment with levodopa. In the early stages apply MAO-B inhibitors (Selegeline) or Amantadine, that have a neuroprotective effect. These medications are usually effective the first 3-4 years of the disease. Upon depletion of the clinical effect is transferred to levodopa preparations.

Parkinson’s disease diagnosis

Parkinson's disease diagnosis

Parkinson’s disease develops slowly and gradually with atypical symptoms such as shoulder pain, numbness, clumsiness. With time to develop and the main symptoms of the disease as characteristic of Parkinson’s disease is asymmetrical start. With the evolution of the disease leads to severe motor disability of the patient.

Formed four cardinal symptoms:
Static tremor (tremor at rest) – in 70% of patients this is the first clinical sign. Usually begins unilaterally distally, most often by hand. Tremor has a frequency 3-7Hz. Typically, it is rhythmic, disappears in movement during sleep. Growing from emotional stress. Over time may be extended to the whole arm, leg, contralateral limbs.
Rigidity – expressed by an increase in muscle tone of the different muscle groups. In a study of muscle tone rigidity exhibits a constant resistance to outward movement of the limbs. The resistance may occur smoothly, but often is obtained stepwise “Phenomenon of the toothed wheel”, that can be reinforced when the passive movement of one limb against the active movement of the other.
Bradykinesia – is to delay voluntary movements, difficulty in initiating and implementing automated movements. Clinical manifestations include loss of spontaneous facial ekspresiya- hipomimiya or “masked face” reduced frequency of blinking, hypophonia in speech, monotonous speech micrograph reduced to missing physiological synkinesis hands when walking, loss of normal gestures, difficulty self. Hypokinesia is presented with reduced amplitude of movements.
Postural instability – the result of loss of postural reflexes, rigidity.

Parkinson’s disease

parkinsons disease

Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. This is a slow progressive disease characterized by the presence of resting tremor, slowness of voluntary movements (bradykinesia) and hypertonia (rigidity). The disease is diagnosed for the first time in 1817, when the Englishman Dr. James Parkinson described the characteristic clinical symptoms. Disease-related biochemical changes in the brains of patients were identified in 1960. It covers about 80% of those with Parkinson’s syndrome, the average age at which first symptoms appeared about 55 years for both sexes, according to survey of Mother Earth News. It is assumed that the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease is approximately 160/100 000 and morbidity – 20/100 000 per year. Caucasians have a greater risk of developing this disease. The risk of developing the disease increases with age. The disease occurs in all parts of the world, but is more common among Europeans (whites) than among the population of Africa. East Asians have an average largest risk. It is more common among rural population and slightly more often in men than in women.